Technology transfer

Technology transfer between the Czech Republic and Russia

BioEnergoGroup LLC and BioEnergyGroup s.r.o. provide services for transferring new technologies to business entities (organizations, firms) of various organizational and economic forms.

1. Assistance in obtaining and issuing of licenses. This is the most common method of commercial technology transfer, carried out in the cases when the income from the license sale exceeds the costs of use control and missed profits caused by the rejection of the transferred technology monopoly on a certain market. Most often transferred under license are not the newest technologies, but the so-called intermediate generation technologies. It should also be noted that the licensed technology is a commodity only when it is duly laid out by the set of technological documentation, is replicable with a given level of product yield and has been certified.
2. Assistance in obtaining and transfer of the know-how. It is carried out in the form of non-patent licenses provision. The main features of the know-how transfer are:
— greater risk associated with the disclosure of the know-how secrecy prior to the signing of a contract and the know-how leakage from the recipient to third parties after the contract has been signed;
 — irreversible nature of the know-how transfer;
 — ever-present time factor;
 — uncertainty of the know-how secrecy period (fast development of technology can make a previously secret know-how publicly available).
3. Engineering. Is carried out by performing a combination of project and practical works for the customer in the engineering field, necessary for the implementation of new technologies (consulting, technological, construction works). There are four basic engineering methods:
— regular (consulting during: the preparation of the plans and project specifications; obtaining proposals from contractors and suppliers; and during the project implementation; the consultant is entitled to act as the customer’s plenipotentiary);
— in-house: use of the customer’s own personnel managing an innovative project, the overall design and even the construction at times. The consultants’ role is limited to the assistance in specific aspects of the project for which the customer’s personnel may be underqualified or inexperienced;
 — project management;
 — “turnkey” works execution

4. Industrial cooperation. A substantial technology amount is transferred in the process of industrial cooperation. As a rule, to achieve this goal the parties united for the cooperative production organization carry out an intensive technological exchange. Agreements on the industrial cooperation go beyond only direct or mutual supplies (sales and purchases) of products or services. They create long-lasting common interest between the parties, aimed at additional mutual benefits.

The main motives for the conclusion of cooperation agreements:
 — obtaining or sharing of technical knowledge;
 — search for the best conditions for the production and the use of labor resources;
 — increase in the seriality and specialization of production;
 — search for new markets;

 — reduction of the production costs, etc.

5. Franchise is a transfer or reassignment (on commercial terms) of a permission to sell someone else’s products or to provide services in certain areas. The growth in the franchise transactions is the result of high market mobility and flexibility of this form of commercial activity and technology transfer:
— for the franchisor (provider of the franchise) this transaction allows to enter a new market quickly and without substantial investments;
—the franchisee (recipient of the franchise) is enabled by the contract to start a new kind of business activity with less failure risks due to the support by the franchisor which includes the transfer of certain skills, techniques, and services, as well as assistance and staff training;
— for the consumer, the franchise expands the range of goods and services available in the local market with the proper (and often guaranteed) quality brand and competitive prices.
6. Leasing (financial rent). Leasing operations involve three parties: lessor, lessee and supplier (manufacturer). The lessor is a specialized leasing company that operates finances and is controlled by the banks or large industrial companies. The lessee is an industrial/trading enterprise that rents the means of production, delivery, or distribution. The supplier is an industrial/trading company manufacturing or supplying equipment and technology via the lessor to the lessee.
The leasing company purchases equipment and technology from the supplier and leases it for a certain specified term. Upon the expiration of the lease, the lessee must return the equipment to the leasing company or repurchase it into his own possession at depreciated value.
The lessee enters into a lease agreement with the leasing company. The leasing contract stipulates: the lease period; the terms and amounts of rental payments and their currency; commitments and guarantees for the maintenance of the equipment received, and its return or repurchase upon the expiration of the lease term.

7. Technical assistance. Agreements and contracts on the provision of technical services and assistance are drawn in two ways. They either constitute the main subject of the agreement, or an according section is included into an agreement on the technology transfer or equipment supply.

A specific trait of the technical assistance contract provision is the fact that the object of the contract is the so-called “intangible” goods, i.e. technical services, research conducting, personnel training; although it also includes the elements of engineering services, contractor works, agreements on the lease of devices/equipment and instruments.

8. Creation of joint ventures. If interested partners from different countries wish to join forces, knowledge and experience in the production of new goods for a certain market, and to share the risks, their best bet is to create a joint venture. No other cooperation form ensures so high an interest of the participants in the ultimate success of the project.
9. Promoting linkages between science and industry enterprises from different countries. This is most often realized in the form of partial funding of the work of professionals (researchers, high school professors, PhD students, masters and senior students) for the enterprises’ technological problem solving. One example is the UK-implemented scheme (Teaching scheme), according to which the work of the specialists involved amounts 25 000 £ and is financed by the government (2/3 of the total) and the host company (1/3 of the total), while the process itself should be short-termed (1 – 2 months).