Fertilizers

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Nitrogen fertilizers

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Nitrogen-based fertilizers are as follows:

 – ammonium nitrate
 – ammonium sulphate
 – carbide
 – sodium salt
 – calcium nitrate
 – ammonium sulfonitrate
 – calcium cyanamide, etc.
All of them influence the soil and plants differently and have their own side effects, which is essential to be taken into account when applying them.
Ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium sulfonitrate and chloride ammonium acidify the soil. Sodium salt, calcium nitrate and calcium cyanamide increase alkalinity of the soil.
Calcium cyanamide is also quite poisonous, which makes it unsuitable as top dressing. It needs to be added into the soil in the autumn.
Application rates of nitrogen fertilizers: Ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfonitrate and carbamide are added into the soil in dry form at the rate of 10 – 25 g. per 1 sq. m.; as a solution, of 4 – 8 g. per 1 sq. m. Ammonium sulfate: in dry form, 30 – 50 g. per 1 sq. m. Sodium and calcium nitrate in dry form: up to 70 g. per 1 sq. m.
Ammonium chloride, potassium cyanamide: in dry form, 20 – 30 g. per 1 sq. m.

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Phosphorous Fertilizers

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Phosphorus fertilizers include: simple and double superphosphate, thermophosphate, phosphorite and bone flour, basic slag, and precipitate. Phosphate fertilizers are applied as both the main and additional ones.

Application rate of phosphate fertilizers: Simple superphosphate: as the main fertilizer, 30 – 50 g. per 1 sq. m.; as additional, 15 to 25 g. per 1 sq. m.
Double superphosphate: as the main one, 14 – 28 g. per 1 sq. m.; as additional, 10 g. per 1 sq. m.
Simple and double superphosphate are better applied in mixture with humus.
Phosphorite flour is used as the main fertilizer (usually in the autumn), and in large doses – up to 80 g. per 1 sq. m.
This fertilizer can function for several years on end.
Basic slag is not to be mixed with ammonia fertilizers; its application rate is similar to that of ordinary superphosphate.
Precipitate works similarly to superphosphate, and is most often used as the main fertilizer, with its application rate the average between simple and double superphosphate.

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Potash Fertilizers

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Potash fertilizers are as follows:

Potassium salt, chloride potassium, potassium chloride, potassium sulfate, potassium-magnesium, potash (potassium carbonate), sylvinite, and canitie.
Potassium fertilizers are highly dilutable and may be applied on any soils. Since there is chlorine present in many potash fertilizers, it is better to use potassium sulfate on saline soils and chlorine
 -sensitive plants.
Application rates for potash fertilizers:
Potassium chloride applied as the main fertilizer: 20 – 40 g. for 1 sq. m.; as additional – 3 – 5 g.
Potassium-magnesium: 25 – 30 g. per 1 sq. m.
Potassium sulfate: 20 – 25 g. per 1 sq. m.
Potassium salt: 30 – 40 g. per 1 sq. m. as the main fertilizer.
Potassium chloride: 15 – 20 g per 1 sq. m., in the autumn for digging-up.

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Complex Fertilizers

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Complex fertilizers include:

Complex fertilizers are those containing two or three NPK elements. These include nitrogenium, ammophoses, NPK, potassium nitrate, and wood ashes.
Nitrogenium and NPK are triple fertilizers. In nitrogenium, the phosphorus content is relatively low; its application rates are 45 – 60 g. per 1 sq. m. The required NPK amount is even less: 40 – 50 g. In the spring they serve as the main fertilizer and in the summer as an additional one.
Ammophoses (just ammophos and diammophos) are dual fertilizers which dissolve easily. The disadvantage of this compound fertilizer is its comparatively low nitrogen content. In addition, ammophoses acidify the soil a little. Their application rate is 20 – 30 g. per 1 sq. m.
Potassium nitrate is a double-concentrated fertilizer. Its application rate is 12 to 18 g. per 1 sq. m.
Wood ash contains almost all the necessary elements, although a substantial amount of it is required: from 0.25 to 0.5 kg. per 1 sq. m. due to the poor availability of nutrients. Wood ash can be also used as a lime fertilizer.